Chloride, Serum

Code

1175

Principle

Chloride is the major extracellular anion. The majority of ingested chloride is absorbed, and the excess is excreted along with other ions into the urine. Low levels of chloride are observed in the case of prolonged vomiting accompanied by the loss of hydrochloric acid (HCl), in some cases of metabolic alkalosis in which there is an increased accumulation of organic anions, in critical cases of Addison’s disease, and in kidney disease resulting in loss of salt.
Elevated levels of chloride are observed in metabolic acidosis associated with prolonged diarrhea and with loss of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), and in the case of renal tubular diseases in which there is a decreased excretion of hydrogen ion (H+), which causes in turn a decrease in the reabsorption of bicarbonate ion (HCO3–). Elevated levels of serum chloride are also implicated in certain cases of hyperparathyroidism.

Preanalytical

1 mL Serum Refrigerated

Turn Around Time

1 day

Methodology

Ion-selective electrode diluted (Indirect)